Home Health La NASA analiza los resultados científicos del rover de Marte, en DIRECTO | MARCA

La NASA analiza los resultados científicos del rover de Marte, en DIRECTO | MARCA

by smart

hello everyone and welcome to nasa’s jet propulsion laboratory in southern california nasa’s perseverance rover landed on mars on february 18th and it’s been really busy since then completing initial checkouts and starting its science mission i’m jari cook of jpl’s digital news and media office and i’ll be your host today as we talk about early science findings and preparations for the next major mission milestone collecting the first ever martian samples for planned return to earth so those of us here at jpl have our masks on because there’s been a recent increase in coronavirus cases here in l.a county but i’m going to introduce you now to our speakers we’re going to start off at nasa headquarters thomas erbukin associate administrator for nasa’s science mission directorate and then here at jpl jennifer trosper perseverance project manager ken farley perseverance project scientist vivian sun perseverance science campaign co-lead and olivier toupee perseverance enhanced navigation lead we will be taking questions during this briefing so if you’re a member of the media and you’re on the phone lines press star one to get into the queue and if you’re on social media use the hashtag asknasa so now i’ll turn it over to thomas zurbukin well thank you so much i just cannot tell you how excited i am to be here today and be part of this moment of course we’re starting to conduct the observations that i’ve been planning for years or even decades and continue to learn about this beautiful planet the planet that has so many answers to questions that we have on our mind such as why does it look like it does so dry and desolate even and did it ever harbor life and uh we’re now ready for years and decades of discovery missions like that of course are planned and contemplated to the best of our ability not only how we execute these observations but also how it fits into our plans not only of exploring mars but learning about our and let’s start with the planning that goes into the rover itself and also the journey to jezreel crater it’s an incredible team that got us there frankly i’m just so such an awe still about this team and i can’t forget the amazing movies that were played back to earth both of cameras looking down into the dust whirling up as we were landing and cameras up looking at the parachute going up there and of course that inspired me inspired all of us and we believe inspires future generations of explorers all that preparation now turns into uh the wonderful fields that we’re in now the time that we really get a chance to observe the surrounding and learn the time where surprises are starting to come in at the time where we learn things about our new new kind of environment of this planetary neighbor please could you pull up the slide this of course used a vast martian fleet of spacecraft to learn about whether water existed on mars and inform us about the complex chemical composition the geology and we’re studying the planetary crust and mantle of the core right now on insight and i just want to give you a heads up that even later this week we actually have another news conference and kind of news are coming out of this inside spacecraft about the very questions i just addressed but today now we’re here talking about perseverance going right to the exact place that can help us gather the next set of answers to key questions then generate even more parachuted in of course uh and tried to figure out when we’re on the ground we landed in the most promising place to answer the very questions i just outlined jezreel crater it used to be a lake and really the home of the most important site of mars discovery today we will see and discuss evidence that the lake had multiple cycles of dryness and filling back up and ken farley of course is going to talk to us about this and also about the instruments that are kind of really on you know showing us new things about the mars environment unprecedented instruments that we’ve never had there could he pull up the next visual please we recognize of course that exploration is not a sprint it’s a marathon perseverance is one step of a long legacy of carefully planned mars exploration that links robotic and human exploration uh for the time to come our minds are already there with the human explorers on the surface of mars just like perseverance is right now it’s also laying the groundwork for one of the most ambitious campaigns yet and of course that’s a campaign of international collaboration with the european space agency and nasa bringing back samples that are collected on the surface of mars bring them back to the best labs that are available to all of humanity for the analysis of the very questions i already outlined we’re just so excited to get to that face every yard on the surface of mars it’s a mars of sample return and uh but back to the present of course i just can tell you how excited i am to with you learn about these uh discoveries and uh and really what we’ve achieved so far uh time and time again this team that is really at the heart of this has exemplified immeasurable dedication and shall i say perseverance i just can’t wait to see what we all cover next i’m really excited jennifer uh jennifer trosper to turn it over to you the perseverance project manager jennifer go ahead thanks thomas well it’s great to be here to talk about perseverance and ingenuity and what the operations team has been up to this summer and perhaps like a lot of you folks we’ve actually been on a road trip this road trip is associated with our very first science campaign and during it we will take our very first sample from the surface of mars go ahead and bring up my first graphic so i can give you a little bit of orientation about where we are in this graphic you can see the landing location which is at the very top in the middle where the beginning of the white line is you can see the rover’s current location which is the blue dot and you can see we’ve been driving this summer on our road trip we’ve been driving mostly south you can see the there’s a an area in the middle we call saita which is a lot of sand dunes and we’ve been skirting the edge of those sand dunes if you recall at landing our terrain relative navigation system also diverted us away from those same sand dunes because they are dangerous we don’t want to drive the rover in those or we could get stuck so we’ve been skirting the edge you can see where the rover is currently in that blue dot then you also see a red dot that’s where ingenuity is we’ve been continuing the injury mission and engineer just recently flew across that sada region to the south it’s in a location where the rover will eventually get to after it does sampling at the location we’re currently in so we’ve been doing a lot of driving if you bring up my next graphic please this image was taken during a new kind of driving that we’ve been doing on the rover we’ve been we’ve been upgrading our driving to an autonomous navigation capability so this is taken from the navigation camera looking back over the rover after it did it’s one of its first and longest self-directed drives so those wheel tracks that you see in that image are all directed by the rover in its autonomous navigation you’ll hear a little bit more about that from olivia to olivier toupee later on the panel so we haven’t just been driving we’ve actually been continuing some of our tech demos one of our tech demos if you recall is moxie moxie’s purpose is to demonstrate for future missions the ability to extract oxygen from the carbon dioxide atmosphere we’ve done three runs to date and those have all been very successful each one got about six grams of oxygen we will continue to do those runs throughout the seasons on mars the atmospheric density varies so we want to make sure that we get experiments at the lowest and highest atmospheric density and this mission is in this experiment is feeding forward to these future missions that would would want to extract oxygen to use for human astronauts to breathe and even launch vehicles so congratulations to mike hecht and his whole team for a great experiment so far and will continue to be doing the moxie tech demo throughout our mission another demo that we’ve been continuing is the operations demo for the ingenuity helicopter you recall that we continued the helicopter mission to feed forward information to future missions about how an aerial reconnaissance vehicle might help the science investigations for future missions we just completed flight nine flight nine broke all of our records the duration was two minutes and 46 seconds the velocity was 5 meters per second and we flew we quadrupled the distance that we had ever flown and we flew about 625 meters and that’s the flight that took us over to the south end of seda i have to say when we were all sitting there waiting for the data to come down we were very relieved that the helicopter succeeded on that very ambitious flight our next flight is planned for no earlier than 7 24 july 24th and we’ll be going to an area called the raised ridges which you’ll hear about from ken and from vivian on the panel in a little bit it’s an area where we may choose to do some sampling the next thing that we’ve really been working on probably the most since we last talked is preparing for sampling so i’d like to show this next video which reminds you of our sample caching system the purpose of our sample caching system is to acquire samples and then to transit transfer those through our bit carousel to the adaptive caching assembly which is in the front of the rover the front of the rover then has another sample handling arm which manages those tubes and the samples inside of them to do imaging and measure the volume and then we will seal those and store those for planned future return to earth so a lot of what we’ve been doing recently both on earth as well as on the vehicle is preparing for that first sample so we’ve been checking out the adaptive caching assembly which is there in the front of the rover one of the things that we did is we actually processed a witness tube so we have 43 sample tubes on the rover they’re inside of the front of the rover here in this adaptive caching assembly and five of those are witness tubes the purpose of the witness tubes is exactly as their name they’re to witness any contamination that might be present so that we can correlate that with the samples taken at the time the specific witness tube that we actually just processed was in the bit carousel here measuring any sort of contaminants that we have seen in the big carousel since launch so we extracted that with our sample handling arm and you can go ahead and play the next video we processed it by imaging it so this is actually taken with a cash cam it’s a camera inside the adaptive caching assembly it’s imaging the inside of that witness tube so inside there you see a witness tube assembly which is what collects the contaminants and then after we image it we actually seal it and activate the seal and that’s what you see at the end of this video so the great news is that all worked perfectly and so we are ready to sample i am very excited about getting our first sample on mars i think the team has done a tremendous work i joked about it being a road trip and summer vacation they’ve been working very very hard it hasn’t really been a vacation for them we’re still working seven days a week but they’ve done the job we’re ready to go and we expect to get that first sample within the first few weeks of august and with that i’d like to hand it off to ken farley to talk more about the rationale scientifically behind what we’re doing thanks jennifer indeed it has been an extremely busy five months for perseverance and for the team not only have we done the technology demonstrations that jennifer described but but also testing out a lot of our capabilities and acquiring an enormous amount of scientific data and i want to tell you a little bit about the highlights of that data tell you about some of our discoveries and also to tell you about some of the things we are going to be doing in the days ahead i’ll start off by talking about the current environmental conditions within jezreel crater perseverance has a very sophisticated set of sensors on board to try to understand the atmospheric conditions and the climatic conditions and to relate them to the broader conditions around mars and we have been acquiring some really fascinating images of dust devils dust devils are just like on earth there are vortices that lift dust into the air and we see them very commonly in images sometimes we see them when we have set out to do so we point the camera in a region and at a time when we think we might see them and occasionally they just appear in images that are taken for navigation purposes or for understanding the geology or getting photobombed by dust devils we’ve also acquired images like this one here which shows a wind gust sweeping across the landscape lifting dust and blowing it along this is a very visceral kind of image makes it feel very earth-like we have this sophisticated set of instruments we hope to better understand why this is happening and what it means for the big picture also within the the last several months jennifer mentioned we’re on the on a road trip we’ve driven about one kilometer to the south investigating rocks of the crater floor so now we’re looking at environments that are much further in the past billions of years in the past if i could have this first uh movie this shows a panorama that we took of these rocks of the crater floor these rocks are important because we believe they are the lowest down rocks in the sequence of rocks that we have and therefore they are very likely to be the oldest and one of the hypotheses that we are trying to test is that the lake that once filled jezreel wasn’t there just once but that it went through multiple episodes of filling up drying down and filling up again this is very important because it means that we will have multiple time periods in which we could potentially learn about environmental conditions on mars and we also have multiple time periods when we might be able to look for evidence of ancient life that might have existed on the planet this is a hypothesis but we’ve started to acquire information that uh bears directly on it and if i could have the next image this is an image taken with the supercam rmi camera this is essentially a telescope mounted on the rover and it’s of a region we call r2b it shows a small hill or a small cliff several meters across a very finely layered rock this is exciting to us because the simplest interpretation of these rocks is that they represent fine-grained rock deposited on the bottom of lake in other words mud that might have been deposited and turned into rock this is exactly the kind of rock that we are most interested investigating for looking for potential biosignatures in this in this ancient rock record if i could have the next image now we have driven to this locality that you see in front of you this is the area where we are really going to be digging in both figuratively and literally to understand the rocks that we have been on for the last several months actually ever since we landed we have been on rocks that we call the paver stones and those are the whitish rocks that you see in this image we’ve been studying these in detail for some time trying to ask and answer this this most simple question are these rocks volcanic or are they sedimentary we’ve been talking about that for a while and i’ll tell you we still don’t have the answer but i want to tell you why we don’t have the answer if i could have the the next image this this shows you what we are up against this is an image that is taken with the watson camera which is mounted on the robotic arm this camera extends out to a few centimeters off the surface of the rock and takes close-up pictures so this is a few centimeters on a side what you are looking at here has an exquisite detail but what we are seeing still doesn’t answer the question volcanic or sedimentary because there are confounding factors so one of the things that you can see in this image is dust dust coats essentially all of the rocks in our study area it’s what gives this image its reddish tint you can also see little sand grains and pebbles these are presumably brought in from somewhere nearby but don’t have necessarily anything to do with the rock below and perhaps less obvious but of of considerable interest is what appears to be a purplish coating on the smoother surfaces of this rock so all of these factors conspire to prevent us from peering into the rock and actually seeing what it is made out of so this is a reason we have not been able to answer this question igneous or sedimentary but we have as a potential solution we’re very excited to deploy for the first time our abrasion tool so much like a geologist when they go out into the field they take a hammer they will break open every rock that they want to study and they will look into it well we don’t have a hammer but we have an abrasion tool and if i could have the final movie this is a movie taken from the test bed prior to launch and what you see is mounted on the robotic arm and a braiding bit that is grinding into the surface of the rock and it’s producing a smooth patch that is about a centimeter into the rock then we will pull the abrading bit out and we will blow compressed air to blow the dust away to yield a smooth dust free surface that we can then deploy our instruments on this will allow us to see through all of these con confounding factors and to really uh i’m pretty confident that we will be able to anal answer this question volcanic or sedimentary we actually commissioned this capability just within the last few days and we will deploy it for the first time and get our instruments out onto those surfaces in the coming weeks so it’s a very exciting time because we will now actually get into these paver stone rocks both with the abrasion tool and with our scientific instruments and then we will also take our first sample this really important step in meeting the missions goals of collecting a suite of samples that are worthy of return to earth and to tell you more about the the science campaign that we are doing and our sampling i turn it over to vivian’s son great thank you ken uh so yeah i’ll be uh talking in a more detail about our first science campaign and what we’re doing to prepare for getting our first sample um so as uh tom as dr zurbukin mentioned at the beginning this sampling process is actually one that began many many years ago when the science community got together and discussed if there were samples from mars that we could return and study in our laboratories here on earth what are the best types of samples that we could get that would really give us the best understanding possible of mars and its history and so those early discussions were of course uh really influential in our decision to even go to jezreel in the first place but also those discussions were really helpful for guiding our planning once we landed and even before we landed and so as jennifer mentioned uh planning the science campaign in this mission is really like planning a road trip as you would here on earth except that we’re on mars for example we have a destination we have a set amount of time in which we want to do this campaign and we also have a lot of points of interest that are nearby or along the way to our destination that we really want to go and see and the challenge as always is figuring out you know exactly where we want to go and how we’re going to fit everything into our schedule and then once we’re on the road as we are now we’re continuously adapting and adjusting our plan based on new information that we get and so this is kind of the process that the perseverance team has been going through for the past months and years and if we pull up the first graphic now you can see that we ever since landing at the octavia e butler landing site shown here in the green text we have a destination for this first science campaign which is to get to the delta and that’s indicated in this image here by that point labeled three forks and you can see the delta in the top left corner along the way in our campaign of course we also have these uh different areas of interest that we’re going to and those are the three areas labeled at the bottom the crater floor fractured rough sita south and the raised ridges and these are the regions where we’re really going to go and do a very thorough exploration of those rocks and acquire samples from those locations so how did we pick our very first sampling location well where we currently are is by that point that was labeled crater floor fractured rough about 3 000 feet south of our landing site and as ken mentioned our first campaign is really focused on studying the crater floor of jezreel which is the majority of that image basically everything that wasn’t the delta that isn’t the delta and there are two major units that we’re interested in uh studying in this crater floor area and so if we look at that image again on the right side of the image this is what we have been calling the crater floor fractured rough which is again going to be our first sample um and this is the cratered terrain uh very kind of similar to the terrain that you see on the moon with all of its craters and then in the middle as we’ve mentioned this is the region that we’re calling sita which is this lighter tone rock that’s covered by a lot of sand and dunes and so these are the two major rock types that we’re really investigating in this first science campaign and as ken mentioned this crater floor fractured rough unit um is a mystery to us because even though we have been on this uh this unit since landing we still don’t know if it’s an igneous uh rock like a volcanic flow or if it’s a sedimentary rock that was deposited uh by air or in water and of course understanding the origin of this crater floor fractured rough unit is going to be critical to not only reconstructing the history of this lake um that used to be here but also it’s important for understanding just the geologic history of jezreel as well as the area around jezreel in this region of mars and so what are we going to do once we get to our first sampling site and again we’re currently at that crater floor fractured rough point on that map and this is roughly an area in which we anticipate our first sample and so now if we pull up the second image you can see a picture of actually where perseverance is currently sitting right now on mars in the foreground here you can see those uh lighter colored paver stones and then in the background you can see these kind of higher standing more rubbly uh parts of the crater floor and again both of these different types of rocks are part of that crater floor fractured rough unit that were that we’re studying and so once we get to our first sampling site the very first thing that we’re going to want to do and you can expect that it’ll probably look similar to that image that we just showed but the first thing that we’ll want to do is identify the exact rock in our workspace that we want to sample and for the purposes of this first sample what we’re really looking for in this crater floor fractured rough sample is really a rock that is kind of prototypical crater floor fractured rough and what we mean by that is uh we want this sample to really kind of summarize and record the history of this entire unit as much as possible we want it to be representative of this unit and so that means that we’re going to be looking for things like texture and chemistry and mineralogy and will want our ultimate sampling um our sample rock to have kind of the typical texture chemistry and mineralogy as all the other crater floor fractured rough rocks that we have explored and seen so far on our trip so after we pick the exact spot in our workspace that we want to sample that exact rock one of the first things that we’ll do is actually kick off a series of very choreographed and coordinated events and this the series of events is going to be the same as for every sample that we’re going to acquire so one of the first things that we’ll do is a braid and as you saw in ken’s video that abrasion is really helpful for removing the surfacial dust and any surface coatings on these rocks and hopefully by seeing these finer scale details like grains and crystals in the abrasion patch hopefully that will give us an answer to whether these rocks are igneous or sedimentary but so after doing that abrasion will then proceed to core a different part of that rock and the core itself is going to be about the size of your finger and the rover will acquire the core and then it will process that sample um in the tube it will seal the tube and then it will store that tube inside the rover belly until it is time to drop off that sample on the surface of mars for the sample cache that will eventually be returned back to earth and so that was just a really quick summary of what we’ve been up to in our first science campaign and i think it’s safe to say that we’re all just incredibly excited um to be you know on the cusp of getting this first sample from mars from another planet um so we’re just incredibly excited and we can’t wait for it to finally happen so with that i’ll hand it off to olivier toupee who’s going to talk to us about the perseverance rover’s autonomous driving capabilities which is really what is enabling us to do all this fantastic science and sampling thanks viviane i’m now going to talk about an exciting new technology which has recently come online on mars on perseverance this month and which has already enabled us to make a lot of progress on our science campaign as vivian explained and that’s something that we call autonomous navigation now you may be familiar with the self-driving cars on earth those are relatively new and quickly gaining popularity but we at jpl have been using autonomous driving on mars for over two decades now it all started with the sojourner rover in 1997 which had basic autonomous driving capabilities and then those capabilities evolved with the mass exploration rovers spirit and opportunity in 2006 and then with the curiosity rover in 2011 and now finally as of this month that capability is active on our latest mars rover perseverance while self driving on mars is new we completely redesigned the artificial intelligence or ai software to make it much more capable for perseverance in particular the rover is now able to straddle large rocks something that nova could do before and all the complex on-board decision making and path planning is now happening as the rover is driving which means that perseverance is able to drive much faster than the other rovers those other rovers had to stop take multiple images then process those images and then find a safe path forward and only drive about three to four feet of that path before having to stop again and repeat that process so that meant that those rovers were spending actually more time stop than driving which means a much slower traverse in autonomous mode this is no longer the case with the perseverance autonomous driving is now just about as fast as human directly driving so let’s show our first video there you can see the perseverance rover driving itself in our mast yard here at through a pretty challenging terrain filled with large rocks and this is one of the many many tests we conducted over the past five years that we spent developing this new technology so how does auto nav work at a high level the ai software builds a 3d map of the environment around the rover using images taken by the stereo cameras of the rovers of the rover you can think of those as the eyes of the rover and then smart algorithms generate a path that is optimized to bring the rover to the goal as quickly as possible while avoiding any obstacle on the way and keeping the rover safe so why do we use autonomous driving on mars so let’s show the next image here you can see all the driving perseverance has done on mars since landing in february and the autonomous drives really stand out in the bottom part of the image because they are much uh much longer than the drives conducted by human drivers and so why is that well human drivers are limited to driving only on terrain that is visible on the images that the rovers send back to earth we can’t drive on terrain that we can see that would be too dangerous and we also don’t drive the rover in real time so to explain that a little bit the way this works is that the surface ops team meets everyday gpr writes all the comments for the rover then at the end of the day we send all those comments at once to mars the rover receives them and then executes them all overnight where we all sleep and then sends the data back the next morning and then we start a new planning cycle and so that means that the human pilots can only drive at most 100 to 150 feet every martian day depending on the local geometry of the terrain because of course if you have large boulders and hills those creates occlusions you can see behind them and that further restricts how far you can go however with autonomous driving the rover is able to take new images as it drives and generate new paths to avoid the newly detected obstacles so it can really drive itself for however long we allow the drive to last and as i explained our autonomous driving is also much faster than before and so that resulted in perseverance accomplishing the longest ever autonomous drive on mars and that was just the second on the second day that perseverance drove itself so let’s show the video of that record breaking drive and you can see there images that we collected every five meters so i apologize if it jumps a little although i’m not i’m not seeing the video okay there we go so something that’s a pretty cool i guess we have technical problems well i was going to say something that is pretty cool in that video maybe it will be posted on the website is that you can see at the beginning of the video the perseverance rover driving by the ingenuity helicopter during its autonomous drive illustrating how our ai software is able to not only avoid obstacles in the natural mastering but also man-made helicopters from earth but the the important takeaway message here is that with autonomous driving we’re able to cover a lot more ground and that means making a lot more progress towards the science campaign desired destinations so i want to show one last image which is a nice mosaic taken by the perseverance rover at the end of an autonomous drive and you can see there in that image the tracks of the rover which show the path that was picked by the ai brain of the rover during the autumn’s drive and that’s something i found really exciting about every autonomous drive is that you never know what path the rover is going to end up driving on mars and as a driver myself i can talk a little bit about that the way this works is that we pick waypoints that are pretty far apart and then we just send a go command to the rover we say go ai and then we patiently wait for the rover to call back home and tell us how the drive went so it’s a really thrilling experience you can picture me waking up early in the morning and waiting anxiously for the data to arrive on earth and discover how the drive went where the rover uh drove um and so uh it’s also a little bit nerve-wracking if i’m being honest but so far the ai software has performed extremely well and i look forward to seeing perseverance continue to drive itself successfully on mars push the limits of how far it can go and how difficult of a tyranny can traverse thanks to our new autonomous driving software and with that i will hand it back to gerry for the qrani session okay thanks olivier so now we had a little bit of a technical issue there uh just know that we are going to put all the images on our website so you can go to mars.nasa.gov perseverance and the websites will be played again at the end of this briefing okay so now we’re going to head into q a just a reminder for members of the media on the phone lines press star 1 if you’d like to ask a question and if you’re on social media the hashtag is ask nasa okay we’re gonna head first to the phone lines and our first caller is robin andrews from the new york times go ahead covering the rocks up at the moment but has there been any anything geologically speaking that has either confounded or just surprised the science team ken would you like to take that yeah i’ll i’ll i’ll start the uh probably the most surprising thing that we have seen so far is when we look at images of the delta this feature that brought us to this location indicative of a lake we see clear evidence that there was indeed a lake there was a period when the water level was quite high and the lake was uh the delta was expanding out into the lake a relatively quiescent period but we would also see higher up and this you can only see from the ground you can’t see it from orbit is that higher up and therefore younger there was a period of lower lake level and flooding what might have been flash flooding moving large boulders across the top of the delta and this is suggesting uh as as part of what i indicated earlier that there are multiple phases in which this lake was active so that’s an especially interesting aspect to this environment that it might record multiple events that were not obvious at all before we got there great okay next in the queue is bill harwood from cbs news yeah hi uh yeah a quick question for ken if i can just follow up a minute i’m a little confused about the nature of the crater floor where you have rocks that you can’t really tell are sedimentary or possibly volcanic i would have assumed that the floor of a lake bottom would feature sedimentary deposits by definition so i mean can you talk a little bit about what it would mean if you if they are volcanic rock there i mean i don’t understand the history of of the presumed lake and volcanic possibility thanks yeah this is a great question and i would say the the null hypothesis the thing you start off with is we are in a setting that we know once had a lake in it therefore the first thing you should be thinking is these are sedimentary rocks that’s that is a good idea uh but it needs to be tested and as i indicated we have been struggling to apply those tests in a way that is definitive about whether they uh are lava flows this this uh crater floor fractured rough that the vivian referred to or what i call paver stones uh nevertheless either one is a very interesting result and and let me explain why if the if the crater floor fractured rough unit is in fact a lava flow sourced from a vent that we have not yet identified that’s really important for our understanding and especially for sample return because one of the special things about volcanic rocks is they can be dated back on earth with very high precision and accuracy so one of the things we would be particularly excited about if we found that it was a volcanic rock is to get a radiometric date that really pins the timing of many of the things that we are looking at on mars so either way it’s interesting and both are possibilities great okay next reporter on the phone line is alexandra whitsey from nature hi thanks for taking my call my question is for vivian’s son again just staying on this crater for fractured rough if this is likely to be where we’re going to see our first core can you talk a little bit more about you know what is its texture like does it remind you of any particular rock units on earth does the nature of the cfr unit change as you’ve driven over it for a kilometer or more oh thank you that’s a great question so yeah there’s a little there’s a lot to unpack there so this crater floor fractured rough unit in terms of the the different textures as ken mentioned one of the one of the things that our science team has been discussing in a lot of in a lot of detail is determining whether these are igneous or sedimentary rocks and so i think yeah comparisons can be drawn um you know from what we can see uh currently on these crater floor fractured rough rocks they can be drawn to various rocks on earth kind of in in both settings um so it’s it’s a little bit difficult to say exactly you know what the nature of these rocks are hopefully by doing the first abrasion we’ll be able to get a closer look at the interiors of these rocks and hopefully that will be less ambiguous but in terms of the different textures of the rocks i alluded to this a little bit but you can see in that second graphic that i had we have these flatter kind of paver stone rocks in in front of us uh where we currently are and then in the background you can see that there are these kind of higher standing parts um of the of the crater floor fractured rough unit um and so this is something that we’re still continuing to investigate um with with the mission is uh figuring out you know is there um is there any difference between these two different types of rocks that are both in the crater floor fractured rough unit um and uh and if so what might those differences mean okay all right next caller on the line is islam ahmed from afp go ahead hi um this could be for cairn or for vivina i suppose um you’ve spoken about um the sort of searching for these bio signatures and i understand that you know none of nothing will ever be confirmed until we have the sample return mission but when do you think you might get some at least sort of sense or idea that if something looks promising amongst samples for having biosignatures yeah i’ll take that one the potential biosignatures that we can see with the rover are primarily with the instruments that are on the robotic arm pixel and sherlock which measure elemental composition so the chemistry of the rock the mineralogy of the rock and also mapping of organic matter and the first opportunity where we could see potential biosignatures in a in a way that i think could be compelling will be when we expose the interior of the rock through abrasion and our first opportunity to do that is in association with the collection of this first sample in the next few weeks the rock that we are looking at as you have gathered we are still puzzling over but some of the rocks that we see in the area that jennifer referred to called sita and i showed you images of a rock that may be similar with those fine layers if those in fact are lake muds that have been turned into rock those are a very prospective place those are a very good place to look for biosignatures and uh yeah that image there is showing you the the area that we that we might imagine to be lake muds and so i think that area is in the in the near term this is at least a few months out before we get to this outcrop is an area that we will be looking very closely for potential biosignatures thank you okay we’re going to go to social media for a couple questions first one will be for thomas zerbukin there’s been a couple of questions on social media uh so pervez on facebook and david on linkedin are asking when can we get the samples back to earth as soon as possible that’s the answer right and how long does that take and of course the most important part is that we let ken and the entire team do the work that they’re doing right now which is just select the samples get them ready and either deposit them or bring them forward um the earliest we could go and pick them up is later this decade uh 26 or 28 uh which brings the sample back at the samples back the earliest uh in the early 30s so that’s uh that’s the time frame we expect the samples back on earth great thank you thomas uh another question on facebook and maybe we’ll start with jennifer on this one niels nielsen on facebook wants to know how has your path plans for perseverance changed as a result of what you’ve discovered since landing well i think the obvious one is that we thought we were going to land right at the delta there’s a little airstrip there we thought that was where we were going to be and we were going to start investigation of the delta because of the sita region and the terrain relative navigation putting us on the other side of that we’ve decided that there’s a very interesting unit that you’ve heard about this unit that we’re on right now where we want to actually drive the opposite direction we’re going south to investigate this area in this first science campaign and get some of these very old samples from this crater floor unit and then we will transition and go back over to the delta we’ll still take you saw from you can bring up vivian’s slide here you can see we’re going to drive down south and we’ll probably go all the way to south sita you can see that location there we’ll collect samples we’ll go back to the original landing site and then we will put the pedal to the metal with our auto navigation that you heard about from olivier and we will you can see the path that will take to get back over to the delta so that’s very different than we thought but it’s it’s a great opportunity to get some samples from this region of the lake bed great thank you we’re going to go back to the media telecon line so we have chelsea god from space.com go ahead hi thanks so much um so with these months of observation and all of these new science findings uh you know i’m sure that mission teams have learned so much about this area on mars that they did not know concretely previously i’m curious how this new information post landing has influenced you know the planned uh sample capture sites as you narrow down more general sites into exactly where you’re going to be collecting and caching these samples in the coming weeks who wants to take that one well the i i’ll answer with respect to the to the sample collection one of the things that uh actually vivian has been leading is an effort to come up with a plan for uh many months ahead perhaps until the spring of of next year and what you see in the image if i can show the image that uh that we’ve been showing from vivian showing our traverse route you see that there are sites that are indicated where we are very likely to collect samples so we are discovery driven but the way we navigate around to make discoveries is to follow the path that you see there and the expectation is here on the crater floor over the about the coming year we will collect four unique samples and we will keep them on board we will carry them to a site which is not yet determined where we will cash them for future pickup it’s my expectation that this caching will not happen within the next year and therefore we don’t feel enormous urgency right now to think about where it’s going to happen because it is pretty far downstream yet okay next on the phone lines is passant robbie from inverse uh hi i wanted to know uh given the additional observations of general crater could you compare them to the observations made by curiosity when it first got to gale creator and how that speaks to the differences between the two missions do you want to take that one ken or vivian yeah i can give that a shot all right um so yeah so it’s a very that’s a really good question because that’s a really interesting comparison where we have both jezreel and gale crater uh both uh we really believe uh used to host these ancient lake systems um but i think you know what we’ve been seeing so far from jezreel is in some ways similar what we see at gale and in some ways it’s not um so for example thinking back to gale crater and what curiosity has been seeing curiosity has seen you know just many many feet um in in terms of uh elevation many many um you know feet of these layered rocks that are kind of the hallmark of being in a lake system a lake and river system and so we see these you know very uh finely layered um layered rocks and there’s variations in the layering that tells you about the uh depositional environment um and the the pace of the water that deposited those rocks and when we think about that in the context of jezreel though you can see from a lot of the images that we’ve seen so far of the crater floor fractured rough you know there’s not a lot of layering in these crater floor fractured rough rocks there are some kind of on the boundary uh between the crater full fractured rough and the sita unit as shown in ken’s images showing that layering um that are kind of new data and that we’re still you know digesting but for the majority of our traverse you know uh these layered rocks and the crater floor fractured rough have been um have been kind of hard to come by so that’s an interesting contrast between what we’ve seen at gale with those many layered rocks um and and the lack of layering in the crater floor are fractured rough um but one surprising thing i think that we’ve seen um since we landed is uh getting a closer look at that sita unit um that’s kind of in the that we’re kind of skirting around the edge of um and you know from orbit when we look at this unit it’s we can’t really see at the scale of the orbital data we can’t see any of the of the layering uh in this rock and so when we did land and we did put our cameras out to the sita region to really see it up close for the first time i think we all were very happily surprised to see you know there are layers in that unit and so of course that might spark some more comparison with curiosity and what it’s been seeing at gale crater um so hopefully we’ll be able to get more up close and personal with these rocks to to really make that comparison better great okay we’re going to go back to social media and a reminder for the folks on the media on the phone again if you want to get into the queue you press star one and the hashtag is ask nasa uh so this is a question for uh dr zurbukin darin on youtube asks how would this science help future humans on mars so we already heard about some of the technologies that are being developed and especially you talked to us about uh the moxie experiment right earlier which is all about making breathable oxygen that is there so there’s tangible actual technologies that really help support life once we’re there with humans that are being proven right now both on the landing site on the navigation side but also that particular experiment i think secondarily the uh what we’re really doing with this uh particular uh you know explorer is really look at the entire environment uh both remember there’s a weather station that it’s carting around with but also are really looking at the best science that of course humans could do as we get there so really understanding what mars is like right there with all dimensions but learning also how to take advantage of the resources are the most important factors of how it supports human exploration great thank you thomas uh this is a question i’ll i’ll start with ken but if ever if other people have ideas you can feel free to chime in cnc news on youtube asks what is the most exciting thing found by perseverance to date i would say two things the the first is uh the very compelling demonstration of the uh helicopter ingenuity and i’ll let others speak to that it is remarkable what that uh uh helicopter can do and i think it’s gonna be in the future it will be transformative to have a helicopter element for science investigations uh the other feature which is is a direct scientific uh observation is the one that i alluded to that quite different from gale we see evidence of rapidly flowing water a phase of rapidly flowing water in this lake late in its history at the top of the delta after the lake had dried down substantially and this fits into a larger picture of the way mars may have evolved from a period when lakes were relatively common on the surface to a period that is younger when there were periodic uh outflow events we don’t know exactly how those happened or or why they happened but we are starting to see evidence and and later in the mission we will actually be up on those rocks and be able to explore them directly okay we’re gonna go to another social media question um this one is about navigation so i’m gonna alter it a bit because uh olivier was talking about how much we can do with the autonomous driving there and so let’s see where did it go uh oh no i lost it it’s uh okay sorry about this there we go okay mars hub on facebook asks is perseverance programmed to drive and do a lot of things itself or do you control it from earth how much how much are you guys doing from earth that’s a good question so there are various modes of autonomy various ways we can uh drive the rover one is to actually give it low level commands and and say per severance please turn your wheels that much uh to make forward progress backward progress turn in place and so we can really control uh the exact motion that the rover does but as i explain when we control it that way we can only drive in the terrain that is visible right around the rover so we can go very far and then there is you know more advanced modes of autonomy where we can say uh rover please drive to that waypoint and we can choose where to place that waypoint on mars and um then the rover can either drive just the fastest path to the goal without imaging um and so without avoiding obstacles in the terrain if we think the terrain is very benign or it can actually image detect obstacles and by itself decide to swerve in between obstacles to get to the goal another autonomous capability i haven’t mentioned which is part which is new with perseverance is that at the end of the drive once the rover reaches a goal in order to be able to talk back to earth he needs to turn to a heading that enables it to talk to the orbiter and in order to do that we actually do that autonomously because at the end of an autonomous drive as i as i hinted at earlier we really don’t know where the rover is going to be what is going to be the final heading what is going to be the final location and so the ai software is actually able to look at the table that says hey given my current tilt i need to turn at that heading to be able to talk to back to earth and if it cannot because there’s an obstacle then it’s going to keep on making progress towards the goal until it finds a place where it can turn for calm is how we call it so that’s about the extent of the autonomy uh for for the driving side and of course there is also some autonomy for the robotic arm operations but but that’s probably a different topic i think we should take sorry okay all right so we’re uh going to go back to the phone lines and uh we have john amos from the bbc on the line go ahead john hi thanks very much uh for doing this can i just um just talk about the uh the sampling strategy for a moment if i may um ken mentioned you know maybe four samples over the next year i mean i i just wonder if you get to somewhere like r2b and you look at that that stretch of rocks which i think is about what is it about 20 meters across something like that and you look at one end and you think wow we ought to take a sample from there but then you look at the other end of it you think oh i don’t know what about the other end would you conceivably take two samples at a location or are you restricted by the number of total tubes you have so you have to make a choice you know one place or another right so i can take that one go ahead um yeah that’s a really great question because uh i think you’re hitting on uh the um you know some of the complexity that we work with when we are planning these missions um and as you mentioned there’s a limited number of tubes so we have to make our choices about what rocks to sample very very carefully and with as much information as we can as we can have so i think an important thing to mention is as ken mentioned you know we are planning uh with this first campaign our going in plan is to collect four samples four unique samples uh from those three areas uh the crater for a fractured rough sita south and the raised ridges um but it’s also important to keep in mind that you know this is our this is our plan based on what we know and as i mentioned we’re always continuously adapting and adjusting our plans based on new information and so i think as we progress in this first science campaign as we uh get more of a better understanding of what these rocks are and what the environment at jezreel was like we’ll always you know keep in mind that that plan can be adjusted and adapted based on that new information okay uh next on the line we have katrina miller from wired go ahead hi thank you um so it was said that perseverance could drive um about 100 100 feet per day with human pilots um and i’m not sure if i missed this but what was the distance of the longest ai powered drive so far and is there ever a time or situation when manual driving would be better or more beneficial than the autonomous driving olivier that’s a great question um so um in indeed in the terrain that is visible around the rover we have the choice to either drive manually or just turn onto another and let the driver the rover drive itself that’s always a little bit of compromise and a recent experience has shown that actually we’ve been more successful letting the rover drive itself than trying to micromanage the path because what happens is that sometimes the rover is going to sleep and deviate from the expected path and if it’s not autonomous then you know it’s going to keep on deviating and sometimes it may you know drive over a large rock or uh you know and end up floating the drive because for example the suspension angles are not what we expect and so we have reactive checks that that will save that will safely stop us in that case um however in autonomous mode the rover is about to image he’s able to see all the rocks uh you know every three or four feet it’s about to reassess the situation and plan a new safe path so it’s actually been doing really well that way and so far again we just started using autonomous navigation so we don’t have a lot of miles under the wheels but so far we’ve driven about i would say three to four times uh longer distances uh than uh when human drivers pilot the rover um and but we expect those distances to grow much more in the future as we are able to drive for longer on mars um and so i think you will see uh probably uh drives that are gonna be uh you know um three to four times uh our longest drive so far which is about 350 feet in the next in the next few weeks or months and in fact in the future we’ll even be able to do what we call multi saw otto nav where the rover is able to drive itself on mars and stop and then the next day resume certainly is driving and then stop and and go on like that for several days so we expect to be able to uh to break a few records in terms of longest drives longest drive on mars in history so i’m very excited about that great thank you oh thank you all right so we have a little uh time so we’re going to keep going next on the phone lines is ken cramer of space up close go ahead hi thank you for doing this and a great mission so far um my question is from i think for vivian please can you talk a little bit more about how you’re going to use the science instruments to select uh the samples which which which ones you’re going to use how long do you need to operate them thank you yeah absolutely um so i think the short answer is that we’re really wanting to use all of our science instruments and our payload on board to get as much data as we can even just in the preparation for sampling so acquiring as much data as we can of these rocks so that we can inform our decision about exactly which rock to sample in terms of in terms of getting into a little bit more detail about the instruments i think we have a fantastic suite of instruments that really complement each other in terms of their functions and they really help us put together you know an efficient plan for getting to that uh sampling decision um so for example we have uh instruments like uh supercam and mastcam that are on the remote mast and we call them our remote sensing instruments because they we can be at a distance from the rocks that we’re actually observing so mass cam z takes these fantastic images a very high resolution that helps us really do a do at the same time a kind of survey of the rocks around us covering a lot of area while also letting us see kind of those fire finer level details like kind of the textures of the rock and any layering in the rock we also have super cam on the remos mast which is helping to get at the composition of these rocks so things like the chemistry and the mineralogy of these rocks then similarly we use that in a surveying fashion as well and we also have our engineering cameras of course that we use every single day to give us the full context of the workspace that we’re in and then all these remote sensing instruments are really helpful for complementing the proximity science instruments that we call that are mounted on the arm of the of the rover um and these are the instruments that uh we place uh much closer to the rocks and so in that second image that i had you could actually see the robotic arm reaching out and hovering over the rocks in front of us in our workspace and these instruments because of how close and proximal they get to those rocks they really give us really the highest resolution data possible and so we’re able to see really fine scale things like grains and crystals you know especially once we are able to abrade and also at that scale we can get these chemistry maps as well as these mineralogic maps and so getting that really high level um detailed look at these rocks up close is is also incredibly helpful as you can imagine for coming to an idea of not only what these rocks are but also just what rocks do we want to sample in our workspace thank you great okay we’re going to go back to social media so i think i’m going to throw this one to ken stephen tendrick on facebook says mazel tov are we expecting evidence of ancient sea life ancient sea life yes well so one interesting thing about mars is we don’t know whether there was ever a phase when there was an ocean it is a matter of debate but it is clear that the place we are looking at in jezreel crater was not part of a sea it was a lake and it was a lake that was about 40 kilometers across so we are not looking for things that would have been growing in the sea and the other important aspect of this is that we are looking very very far back in the history of the solar system and what that means is that life would not have had much of a chance to advance very far and that’s why we always say that we are looking for evidence of potential microbial life because on earth our example of one about how long it takes life to evolve on earth advanced life which you might consider to be sea life like you know fish and corals and these sort of things they didn’t appear until relatively recently so we’re appearing very far back in the in the history of life and we only expect if there is life that it would be microbial did you want to add to that jennifer or no okay i think ken handled it very well yeah okay uh next on social media i think i’ll uh toss this over to thomas alimsha on linkedin asks if samples are tested under labrador laboratory conditions on earth how will this affect accuracy well that’s exactly the question at the heart of this right we bring these samples back to earth because we can make them as the measurements as accurately as humanly possible here on earth you know that every year the technologies are getting better and the as we bring these samples back and we said in the early 30s these samples will be here we have the best technology available to actually make these measurements they’re by far better than the technologies that we have today if history is any teacher so it will affect it tremendously and in a positive fashion great thank you thomas uh juggernaut joe on youtube asks what place has the highest probability to have preserved fossils that we could find if they exist on mars the delta or the crater floor well i’ll give i’ll give my answer this is this would be a matter of opinion at this point because it depends completely on what the environment was that is recorded in those rocks and if the rocks that are in the crater floor and in particular for example in that area that i called artubi or in the area that we called sita if those are former lake muds those are a very good place to look for fossils for what we call biosignatures the delta may also have such environments but it’s also clear that some parts of the delta were fast flowing water and sand sand and rocks and and just even intuitively you could imagine that the ability of a rock to preserve evidence of life if it is mud that deposits very smoothly and slowly and without much agitation there’s a good possibility of preservation if you’re in say a mountain stream with boulders rolling along not a good place for preservation so that’s the kind of criteria that we will use but we can’t really apply it all that well just yet great thank you all right so this is a question for jennifer sakshi on linkedin asks what was the most challenging part of building this mars rover wow how much time do we have no i think i think the key here is that there are thousands of people who contributed to this and and every person had a a depth of knowledge and or a breadth of knowledge that that brought something unique to the team to to be able to build this rover this helicopter and developed this science mission and so there’s nothing you know the the landing system is always harrowing because it’s got to work and there’s only one way to get to the surface so obviously that’s one of the challenging things but i think in terms of the upgrades that we’ve made over time i’ve worked on all of these rovers and all of these missions and a real um complex and difficult to operate and manage system that we are that we built on this was the whole sample caching system and the adaptive caching assembly i mean we added uh we had three robots we have the big robotic arm on the outside which curiosity had we have the big carousel now that we use to transfer samples and tubes back and forth than bits and then we have another robotic arm on the inside that manipulates these tubes and uses force sensors and there’s just a lot of complexity to that and and even over the last few weeks we’ve been understanding the complexity we had a couple first-time activities that we we tried once and and we had maybe a thermal issue of some modeling we didn’t quite understand and then we tried it again and we had a timing issue with the motor controller so so we are learning as we go it’s a complex system and i think that adaptive caching assembly is really kind of the paramount thing that we’ve done on this mission that’s much more difficult than previous okay and lira on linkedin asks a question maybe this is a question for ken or vivian how will texture of these rocks be analyzed if you use the abrasion tool sorry could you repeat the question how will texture of these rocks be analyzed if you use the abrasion tool i think you know how do you analyze it after you’ve rubbed things away from it ah okay yeah so we abrade off the surface we get rid of the sand and the dust and the coatings and then with compressed gas we blow all of the tailings away and so this would be it would not be quite as polished as your countertop but it is the same kind of idea it’s a nice flat surface and it will be recessed below the surface of the rock by maybe that much so not very far and then we bring the instruments in and they look directly at this new surface and this is exactly the way these instruments were designed to function it’s what it’s what we have always been assuming that we would need to do to get rid of this confounding surfacial uh artifact basically okay we’ll take one more question on social media uh i think that’s probably a question for jennifer ellazam on linkedin asks how deep does the drilling process go how many attempts do you have to drill before the cutting tools become dull um great question uh we we go down you know about five centimeters and in general we like to we have several bits that we’ve take that we’ve brought along with us and we will look at the abrading bits and we’ll inspect them and we’ll see it really depends on the kind of rocks we’re up against if we have very soft rocks a bit may last a very long time if we have very hard rocks you know we may have have to change out the abrading bits more frequently and so that’s something that we monitor the team is very adaptable to those types of things we we basically have designed the system to be able to manage around whatever we find relative to the bits and so um it it


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La NASA analiza los resultados científicos del rover de Marte, en DIRECTO | MARCA
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