Home Trends Presentation of Initial Findings of the Science Panel for the Amazon

Presentation of Initial Findings of the Science Panel for the Amazon

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thank you so much for everybody online for joining us we’ll be getting started in just a couple minutes we’re so thrilled that you’re here a short note if you were looking for translation there is an icon at the bottom and the event will be available in spanish and portuguese isabella could i maybe ask you to repeat that in portuguese and spanish for our colleagues [Music] gracias great we’re going to go ahead and get started again thank you so much for being here it is my great pleasure to introduce you to our wonderful moderator alona sabo um elona if you could kick us off uh professor sax has notified us that he’s running a few minutes late um so if you could do your introduction and we’ll start with mercedes um and we’ll have jeff uh speak after her if that would be okay apologies for the last minute change sure so thank you very much welcome everybody distinguished panelists partners and participants to our side event at the high level political forum presentation of initial findings of the science panel for the amazon so before we start i would just like to let you know that we’ll have simultaneous translation to portuguese and spanish speakers so please click at the interpretation icon in the bottom of your zone by way of introduction my name is ilona zabo i’m the president of the garappa institute in brazil a global think and do tank founded in 2011 and committed to delivering data-driven and evidence-based solutions on issues related to public digital and climate security so i’m your moderator for today’s sessions so we are gathered here to discuss the future of the amazon basing the world’s largest tropical forest spanning over 7 million square kilometers and eight countries plus one territory as you all know the amazon is vital to the stability of the world’s climate and home to about 10 percent of the world’s biodiversity it is home to around 40 million inhabitants including more than 2 million indigenous peoples yet the amazon is facing dangerous threats especially of deforestation and degradation which the vast majority is illegal so global demand for cattle soy minerals flora fauna threatens the ecosystems and biodiversity of the basin and the world so given these urgent challenges the united nations sustainable development solutions network sdsn has convened the science panel for the amazon so the panel includes approximately 200 of the world’s top scientists who’ve assembled an unprecedented 33 chapters report it is the first of its kind and sets out a host of bold evidence-based recommendations to promote conservation and sustainable development we have an outstanding and renowned group of speakers joining us today to discuss some of these core findings of the panel’s report so the report is a very serious piece of work hundreds of pages of detailed findings and maps accompanied by short summaries as your moderator let me just set out the agenda for the day quite ambitious one so today’s session will be opened by professor jeffrey sachs we will just uh postpone a few minutes his remarks is going to join us in a few minutes but he’s the convener of the science panel for the amazon the president of the sustainable development solutions network and the university professor at columbia university so we’ll then turn to the science panel for the amazon with inputs from some of our lead authors and members of the science steering committee including mercedes bustamante marielas marielos pena claros simonia taiichi and ricardo abramovi after this we’ll have a message from mr gregorio mirabal coordinator of koika following uh his message we’re going to have president santos guillermo and valerie hickey they will comment the findings from the perspectives of governments business and international community we’ll then have roughly 25 minutes for q a and we’ll have a short closing remarks by emma torres so finally we’ll be taking these questions from participants so um if you can send them through the chat and q a function we’ll just uh hope to get to to as many as possible so we’ll start uh we’ll wait for professor sax to arrive so we will start uh with the the introduction of mercedes bustamante co-chair of the science panel for the amazon science steering committee professor at the university of brasilia and the member of the brazilian academy of science so the floor is yours mercedes thank you very much lorna for this kind of introduction good afternoon to everyone so on behalf of the sba outdoors and history committee we’d like to thank the spa strategic committee and the high-level political forum for the opportunity to be here today we expect to show in the four very brief presentations that the future we want is intertwined with the amazon we want the next slide please before we present some of the key messages we would like to highlight the process of co-design and generation of knowledge that is a hallmark of the spa the integration of diverse visions of the future of the amazon is critical to developing common principles and values based on the respecting limit natural limits the panel mobilized a network of scientists communities practitioners and managers across the regions and disciplines through the organization of workshops and webinars and engagement of multiple voices the next one please we live in the context of multiple and interrelated crises such as climate change biodiversity decline and the covid19 pandemic science tells us that we face potentially irreversible and catastrophic risk for humans however science is also showing us that there is a narrow window of opportunity to change its trajectory action is not only needed it must be exponential and it is possible we have a scalable solutions and they give they can give us better outcomes for society economy health equity and stability the next one is so the fate of the amazon is central to the solution to the global crisis amazon ecosystems represent a large component of the global carbon cycle they account for about 20 of the terrestrial productivity undisturbed amazonian rainforests act as a net carbon sink but the sink may be declining over time the amazon basis is one of the most critical elements of the global climate system the amazon is a significant source of water and energy to the atmosphere and strongly influence atmospheric circulation patterns both within and outside the tropics the rainfall that results in the largest river to start on earth next one please the modern amazon basin reflects complex geological and biological process operating over many millions of years we can identify more than 50 vegetation types from the high elders to the low parts of the amazon even in poor soils high productivity rates are maintained thanks to the efficient mechanisms to excite nutrients mediated by biodiversity as an example there are more species of flowering plants in 100 square meters of amazon rainforest than in the whole europe the resilience of amazonian ecosystems is dependent on these complex interactions of this extraordinary unique and irreplaceable biodiversity the amazon is still a global biophysical reactor but is showing changes in its functioning in responses to local regional and global pressures deforestation and forest degradation are two consequences of multiple drivers as land use changes and anthropogenic fires currently 18 of the amazon is the forest and seven percent of it is degraded deforestation and degradation are also creating large extent of forest edge and forest ads present modified microclimate and flammability resulting in a spiral of degradation and significant carbon losses because of the high tree mortality disturbance have put more than 8 000 endemic plants and 2 2 300 animals at high risk of extinction affecting forest functioning productivity and resilience next one please that’s what sorry i think i miss okay sorry of course i thought it was awesome deforestation and degradation are not only detrimental to ecosystem health but also to human health through increasing risk of existing infection diseases and the emergence of new ones changes in fire regime are increasing air pollution with social and economic consequences the next one so amazon is one of the most important tipping elements in earth system its disruption can lead to cascading effects on global systems the simultaneous impact of climate change extreme events land use drug stress and tree mortality pose a crucial question how much forest clearing and in which locations could result in crossing tipping points leading to persistent novel ecosystems with lower biomass over large areas with potential global negative impacts next one so finalizing the spa consolidated a new understanding of the responses of the amazonian ecosystems to changes happening at unprecedented rates and is pointing out the urgency to address solutions in the common presentations my colleagues will focus on the social diversity of the amazon and the crucial role of the amazonian peoples the opportunities in landscape level conservation and restoration initiatives and how a new economy can support the amazonia we want thank you very much for your attention thank you ilana thank you very much mercedes so we will continue with the the panel findings so i’ll just uh invite marielos pena claros co-chair of the science panel for the amazon science student committee and the professor at wageningen university in the netherlands please uh in correct me if i pronounce the the university name wrong marialis please the floor is yours um ilona sorry uh now we have actually simoni oh sorry then so we’re going to have simonia tayde lead author of the science panel for the amazon and professor at florida international university with over 20 years of experience across the amazon so the floor is thank you very much thank you very much alona can you hear me well yes okay great thanks everyone for being here i’m going to present a brief summary of the main initial findings of social cultural aspects from the sba next so the amazon is a place of rich biodiversity as mercedes has presented to us and this rich biodiversity that amazon holds is connected to also a huge social diversity or cultural diversity the amazon has been inhabited by diverse indigenous peoples for at least 12 000 years and these indigenous peoples along with other local communities have significantly shaped amazonia ecosystems biodiversity and agrobiodiversity the diversity of agricultural crops through diverse management practices that are deeply rooted in their worldviews knowledge systems languages and cultural backgrounds today the amazon is home to more than 40 million people they are living in both rural and urban areas across the eight amazonian nations plus the french guyana of this total more than two millions are indigenous peoples consisting of more than 350 distinctive ethnic groups and nations including some 60 groups who still live in voluntary isolation next one yes so this indigenous lands traditional territories and protected areas conserve nearly 50 of the amazon and shows the great potential of the amazon to conserve social ecological connectivity indigenous lands the traditional territories and the protected areas they work as buffer areas to prevent illegal deforestation and the spread of forest fires as well as climate change mitigation and adaptation but these areas are on the threat by several activities that include infrastructure agriculture and ranching expansion mining and oil extraction more than 80 percent of the area occupied by indigenous peoples is forested and 35 of all latin americans remaining intact forests are occupied by indigenous peoples these numbers according to a recent fao report these numbers are clear indication of this close link between culture and biological diversity in amazonia and also between human and environmental health which need to be connected they highlight indigenous peoples and local communities as crucial partners for ongoing biodiversity conservation as well as forest management fire prevention and restoration initiatives as marielle is going to present to us next next slide please so it’s very important to link social justice with sustainable development in innovative governance arrangements in attainment of the sustainable development goals we need to strengthen regulatory frameworks and institutional procedures that protect indigenous peoples and local communities land and water rights which are critical to both social justice and the conservation of the amazon’s linked social biodiversity these connections also should be strengthened between uh indigenous peoples the local communities lands and territories municipalities and the mar department headquarters to promote networks and supply chains for the products of the social biodiversity next one another aspect that we are highlighting in the sba is the importance to value and recognize indigenous languages which are critically endangered in the amazon today there are over 300 languages spoken in the amazon can you believe that much less than at the time of european arrival and in these indigenous languages are critically endangered by some of the same forces that threaten amazonian biodiversity just as these languages cultures and worldviews are in danger of disappearing so are the important associated knowledge systems that are linked to and sustain amazonian biodiversity so we need to a key recommendation from the sba is that policies for revitalizing strengthening and conserving indigenous languages need to be better integrated to policies to conserve amazonian biodiversity it’s a very important message here also we need to recognize the role of of women uh which have played a very important role in amazon conservation development including the maintenance of amazonian agrobiodiversity food security and sovereignty very important today especially considering the kavit 19 crisis and the contribution of indigenous women as well as youth organizations in knowledge systems territorial management and research stewardship should be recognized and we need to guarantee special support to their participation in decision making and management initiatives next one and finally amazonia amazonian peoples are already leading the design and implementation of sustainable solutions in the amazon in the spa we present a set of numerals examples across the amazon where these initiatives are already taking place now we’re sharing these stories uh to inspire the future of the amazon movement uh despite the fact that the sites and interests of local people have been overlooked they are generating alternative approaches to manage and restore landscapes elaborating new marketing systems and forms of governance so we recognize that we commend that the participation of indigenous peoples and local communities in decision making and in the design of sustainable solutions for the amazon needs to be insured and strengthened that’s my presentation thank you very much thank you so much simone now we have marielos pena claros co-chair of the science panel for the amazon science student committee and the professor at the wageningen university in the netherlands the floor is yours marielos thank you ilona can you hear me well yes perfect thank you again good morning good afternoon i will highlight some of the key messages related to the conservation and restoration opportunities that we have identified in the sba report can i have the next slide yes as we have heard and we all know the amazon has high diversity in biological social and cultural terms the threats to biodiversity and the systems functioning are also very diverse think about agriculture expansion mining hunting illegal trade these threats originate from within the basin but also from outside the basin therefore there are no single or simple solutions to solve the amazon social environmental problems instead a broad set of initiatives need to be adopted replicated adjusted to local conditions and scaled up the participation of amazonian peoples like like you just heard in this process is key for guaranteeing the success of such initiatives it is also very important to realize that the success of any initiative promoting the conservation of the amazon also depends on global actions that address climate change and that address improving our governance of the supply chains to avoid exporting deforestation river fragmentation and other environmental harm harms we need to we need to focus both on landscape level conservation and on restoration initiatives the need to conserve forests and water bodies is probably more urgent than ever and we can do so through strict protection or through sustainable use of the resources restoration is important to reverse the damage already done to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems but restoration actions can be costly and complex to implement so it’s actually better to avoid deforestation and degradation so that we don’t need to take restorative actions so then the question is but how can we stop deforestation how can we stop degradation to stop deforestation we need certain initiatives that include a growth and coordinated suite of measures implemented at various scales and jurisdiction if we take for example uh if we take as an example the the uh the deforestation program that the brazilian government implemented in 2000 between 2005 and 2014 there were lots of actions being taken at the municipal level at state level at the national level and for that time it did it did work in terms of stopping degradation preventing forest fires is a priority fire prevention requires changes in farming practices monitoring of fire events forecasting drought intensity and fire risk and we certainly also need well-trained and well-equipped fire brigades about 30 of the uh of the amazon basin has been either deforested or degraded so we are talking about 800 000 square kilometers this means that there are plenty of opportunities to implement restoration to move forward to move toward to move towards a successful restoration we need to identify priority areas through participatory approaches involving local local peoples and governments in the chapter dealing with restoring the chapters dealing with restoration we provide an overview of the risk of the restoration options already available for the amazon these options are relevant and technically feasible for the different contexts that we find in the amazon basin the approach to be used depends on the type of disturbance to which the area has been subjected to and it depends as well on the restoration games restoration can only be successful if it provides benefits to people through restoring and creation of sustainable and socially economic activities this is very important so i would like to provide two examples of restoration actions that can be undertaken one of them is restoring agricultural productivity to reduce the deforestation restoring the productivity of abandoned or degraded agricultural land is very important to cover the current and future demands for food fiber and other products studies have estimated that if we will manage to restore this agricultural land already being used or misused maybe um we will be uh there will not be need to convert additional forested areas into agricultural land so as as the previous speakers have mentioned several alternatives to restore productivity are currently being designed and try out and implemented by local peoples and organizations think for example our forestry systems improve shifting cultivation better and better practices for cattle ranching another action that we could take refers to restoring fisheries and curbing overfishing fish provides millions of people in the amazon with primary sources for protein and other essential nutrients restoring fisheries the fourth involves the development and reinforcement of sustainable fishing practices and regulations restoring and protecting critical habitats and improved monitoring now studies have also shown that for management can be very effective especially when responsibilities raise with local users and governments so i think one of the key messages here is that local peoples and local governments are really very important to promote conservation and restoration yamas in the amazon thank you thank you very much mariellos and now we have ricardo abramovic lead author of the science panel for the amazon and a professor at the university of sao paulo he’s the author of the book amazonia for a nature-based knowledge economy please ricardo the floor is yours thank you iluna good afternoon good morning everyone the third part of the science panel is about solutions and when we think about solutions bioeconomy comes immediately to mine but one of the main paradoxes of our time is that the amazon is yet far from the social scientific technological frontier of the contemporary bioeconomy the sustainable use and added value of its social biodiversity is the main path for it to continue offering the world ecosystem services essential for the life on the planet at the same time this is where the opportunities to improve the living conditions of rural forest-based and urban populations lie by the economy is important not only in creating opportunities for the rural and forest inhabitants but also as a source of solutions for urban challenges by the mean of nature-based solution making the sustainable use of the forest and river social biodiversity the epicenter of amazonian economic development implies recognizing the importance of the knowledge accumulated by its forest peoples as well as valuing current regenerative practices that are gaining increasing importance in the region there is a rich spiritual and material culture that is under threat and that must be protect and valued next please the social and economic base for sustainable use of forests and rivers is broad and diverse and diverse it involves traditional activities of indigenous peoples and local communities family farming systems market by land use that protect and enhanced biodiversity but also commodity agriculture focused on the production production of grain and meat which is increasingly facing the challenge of contributing to keeping the forest standing and the rivers flowing until now captain cattle ranch and soy plantations are among the main drivers of deforestation in the amazon it’s urgent that the sector also change its productive methods to contribute to social biodiversity next please the growing world attention to the advance of deforestation has resulted in the broad mobilization of diversified social and political forces in the amazon that seek alternatives to predatory forms of use of the region not only international agreements such as the laticia pact stand out in this context but also the role of both sub-national governments and coalitions made up of civil society organizations companies scientists and indigenous peoples and local communities leadership and the governance of the transition to a nature-based knowledge economy next please one of the most important premises for the emergence of a new bioeconomy is to change the conception and forms of implementation of infrastructure plan for the amazon meeting the basic needs of its populations high quality internet connections agile transport service and high quality information to improve the commercialization of products are basic objectives to which in most cases the current infrastructure does not attend next please the amazon has today several educational and research organizations working for the nature-based knowledge economy with the appropriate level of institutional investments and international collaboration a the economy of standing forest and flowing rivers can flourish and the contribution of the scientific organizations of the amazon itself is essential next please the biggest obstacle to the sustainable use of the amazon is in the prevailing view among the economic and political elites of our countries which to this day see the region as a kind of empty space to be occupied by agricultural activities and conventional mining and the data show that these conventional activities were not way able to bring well-being to the populations of the amazon and have become drivers of forest destruction bioeconomy is the main way for the amazon to deliver ecosystem service from which the life on earth depends and to improve the well-being of the 40 million people who live in the region many things thank you so much each of you mercedes simoni mariellos and ricardo for agreeing to share reflections with us today so i’m sure we’ll have a very fascinating discussion uh in the end of the session but before we’re very lucky to have with us professor jeffrey sachs the convener of the science panel for the amazon the president of the sustainable development solutions network and the university professor at columbia university so over to you professor sex ilona thank you so much uh thanks to all of you i apologize for joining late i’ve caught the last two of the presentations which are absolutely wonderful uh i’m in athens in a conference and was speaking in the session that just ran late but let me tell you how remarkable your output is uh this is without question the most comprehensive uh in-depth cutting-edge uh holistic vision of the amazon uh that uh exists uh and how vital and and how remarkable uh that you the 200 uh or so scientists have put this together with such commitment clarity passion and speed because of the urgency the science panel for the amazon was launched with a kind of urgency because we saw a political process that was running absolutely rapidly in the wrong direction a very dangerous direction a direction of lack of enforcement of laws on the books lack of insight that we just heard from ricardo about what sustainable amazon really means for the inhabitants of the region lack of awareness of the near tipping point state of degradation of the amazon certainly lack of any of the depth that you have brought to the fore in this amazing volume and i think that uh the payoff we will make sure that it is uh huge uh with this vital resource that you have created now we’ll have the public consultation but soon we’ll be delivering at this volume uh to uh world leaders uh i will make sure absolutely it’s uh sitting on the desks of uh the secretary general of the un uh the uh leaders of the g20 countries uh including of course uh countries of the amazon basin uh the pope francis uh who of course in the synod on the amazon that i was honored to be part of together with carlos nobre i will welcome this report and the vatican is so profoundly committed to sustainable development and the sustainability of the peoples of the amazon also that i’m sure that this will be received with the enormous commitment and gratitude we’ll make sure that this is heard around the world and it’s so timely because we are entering an intensive diplomatic period now i’m on my way to the pre-summit of the un food system summit there’ll be a pre-summit at fao july 26-28 and there will be a number of world leaders at this summit i will have hard copies of the draft report to share with the leaders there then there will be in september the un food system summit in october the opening of the kunming cop15 of the convention on biological diversity in november of course is glasgow cop 26 on climate and this report is central for all of those issues and for all of uh the global reorientation uh towards sustainable development then keep in mind that uh and i think very important the g20 in the coming years this year it’s led by italy in the coming year it will be led by indonesia indonesia is another country that knows about the fragility of the rainforest ecosystems another country that shares with the amazon basin some of the in critical challenges of reorientation of the need for financing solutions financing sustainability so i want to use this effort of all of us of the spa to help inform the g20 process during the uh year of the indonesian presidency uh emma and i have also been in discussion with the leaders of the congo basin president chisiketi of the democratic republic of congo and the 13 countries of the congo basin are well aware of this spa they know about the science panel for the amazon and there is strong interest in using the guidance and the wisdom that you have demonstrated in creating a science panel for the congo basin in the same way i hope we can call on some of you for guidance and leadership in that area but what you have done is already inspiring other regions in southeast asia and in the congo basin in africa to do the same and what a template you have made it’s so beautiful i’m leafing through the chapters of course i haven’t read them in detail yet but the framing the the deep history of the region the deep geology the biodiversity the history of the peoples the history of the economic exploitation and the solutions it’s a thrill to have it all together so i will stop here because i would go on and on saying the same thing that i am so excited for what you have accomplished and uh i see this as an extremely powerful tool i want your suggestions and guidance as clearly posed as possible for how we can use finance this is where i can come in i can come in to help mobilize new financing new models of financing new models of community financing new models of sustainability financing of the standing rainforest but i need uh all of the wisdom here and believe me i will be your champion for this cause we will be working on uh mobilizing new paid-in capital for uh the inter-american development bank among others uh and other kinds of innovative financial approaches in the in the immediate next months so this will be i think a way to turn the wisdom into real scale programmatic efforts that’s of course our our profound commitment so friends thank you to all uh andrea uh thank you for co-leading uh with carlos and to all of the the wonderful colleagues in this process you’ve created an absolute marvel uh that is a tremendous breakthrough thank you so much thank you very much professor saxon thank you for the good news you know i we couldn’t agree more uh on your kudos to the report this uh scientists uh done an amazing amazing work so we’re very excited to go through the initial findings but also it’s very important that you highlighted the urgency uh of just how how urgent we need to find solutions but also how timely this report is and and the time of the launch will be able to inform this very high level events that are crucial and will determine the the future of the region but also super super happy to know on the next steps that you’re bringing this model for other regions so let us know more when the time comes so now yeah we would be very happy to to just cheer and just support the other endeavors so before handing over to our next set of uh very impressive speakers uh we’ll hear a message from jose gregorio diaz mirabao the general coordinator of the coordination of the indigenous organizations of the amazon basing and the member of the strategic committee of the science panel for the amazon should we try once again just to have it with sound was there sound that time no unfortunately yeah can we maybe go to the next speaker and i will try to fix this i am sincerely sorry that it’s not working no problem we tried to hear from jose gregoire diaz mirabal at the end so we are very lucky to have with us still after this amazing set of speakers uh very very uh i would say impressive speakers who come so i would also invite the first one of them president juan manuel santos former president of colombia nobel peace prize laureate and the member of the science panel for the amazon strategic committee so they uh together with guillermo and valerie hickey will also provide some initial initial reactions uh on the findings that we just heard from so please president santos over to you thank you very much and i would like to start by echoing the words of professor sax i read very superficially the 33 conclusions and the recommendations and the different analysis that was made in this report and i was very very impressed i i never imagined that in such a short amount of time such rich information could be gathered analyzed and digested and it’s of great great importance i want to also thank professor sax for his passion and his involvement in this initiative uh i’ve been a witness of his passion for the sustainable development in general but for this particular report in particular in in in particular i i would like to stress something that comes out from my own experience and i tried many times when i was president for eight years to bring together the eight countries and for the eight countries to work together and be effective in the implementation of the decisions and it was very difficult it was very difficult for political reasons uh lack of coordination so i remember that we had the initiative or the we called it the triple a on this amazon and atlantic and a corridor that we wanted to create to protect the all the indigenous communities that lived in that corridor and of course the amazon basin we had it all set for a summit there was a change in the government of ecuador and suddenly it simply didn’t follow through because the new president of ecuador at that time wanted something different i i bring this as an example of of the need of a political will and political coordination unfortunately right now in latin america and especially in these eight countries that uh that there are part of the amazon you you don’t see that political leadership you don’t see any of those presidents taking the baton and driving the force for example of the cause of the amazon my president and i talked for colombia the leticia pact was made in my country in leticia well my president suddenly said it was very important but when he has to deliver for example by the ratification of the escazu treaty he does not deliver for political reasons so i think that this information is extremely important to to give more importance to evidence in science over politics and ideology and it should be in a way presented with that purpose there’s so many so much information and things are so when you digest it and you simplify it so such powerful messages that we have to start repeating that in order for that to have a constructive political effect in a way de-politicize or taking ideology out of the discussion and politicizing the discussion in the sense of making everybody aware of how important saving the amazon is i think this is and and what this report does is gives us the the tools the ammunition to to fulfill to perform that very important task professor sax was was mentioned in many summits that we have for example this year the food summit the biodiversity summit the summit in glasgow as a matter of fact i think that we have we have at a certain moment in time and the sooner the better to merge all these efforts because they are very very much interconnected saving biodiversity and climate change are one of the same challenge and we have to start merging them and i think it would be very important if in all of these summits the effect of the amazon of what it would take and what would what it would cost if we don’t act on the on on saving the amazon for example in climate change or the effect on the biodiversity that would in a way multiply the effect of this report i i think that the the idea of of professor sax of putting the report in the desk of every head of state is is what is needed but not only at the head of of each head of state every congress every parliament and every uh governor and every mayor uh should have uh this report and act upon it because also as as cindy and as it has been said so many times you need a coordination of that of international bodies national bodies and at the state level and the municipal level and of course the dangerous communities and all the civil society and social communities that live in the amazon if we don’t have an effort that is coordinated in that way then we will not be effective we have a big enemies of of what we’re doing um most of them illegal activities and therefore and in my own experience when i had to confront this problem bringing in with the with real political will the justice the systems and the police systems in the countries also to combat the illegality that is causing so much damage in my country we had the the report last last week of deforestation again deforestation increased increased by a good percentage and so we need to act much faster and much more effectively and therefore this report if you we simplify the messages and give the the tools and the information to the right people i think the effect would be extremely extremely beneficial um i would then not end up by saying something about the indigenous communities and how important it is to preserve them to protect them and to in a way use them use them constructively my experience with them the first time i i entered into contact with them when i became minister of defense back in the year 2006 and they started to teach me their culture their their concept of justice their concept of of maintaining the environment and i fell in love with them and i started studying and and and understanding uh what they what their culture was and this is what we need in the world today many of the concepts are very simple very powerful so if we also make their their knowledge and their culture better known to the world the effect of protecting them would be much uh enhanced i i i truly believe because it was my own experience i i i even went when i became president to a to to ask for their permission to go to congress to become president because i was so impressed by the way they taught me uh the most simple things in the most powerful way that i think that that effect worldwide would be very beneficial also for the world to know how important it is to protect the amazon and protect the people who live in the amazon but again congratulations to all to the 200 scientists i think you did a great job thank you professor sax and thank you all of you who are doing this great work of saving the most important region in the world which is the amazon thank you thank you so much president santos i think you touched upon so many important issues but thank you for highlighting the central role of indigenous communities because i think uh you know without them there is no forest and we know that where they are the forest is well preserved and i think they have a very very central role in anything that we think or or just dream for this region but also i think the importance of the science the science-based public policy so we will count on you to bring this message to the leaders of all powers of the states of the region and the world because i think as you said you know it’s a it’s a global common good the amazon and also thank you for highlighting the whole of society approach that is needed to go forward and implementing solutions so thank you very much let me add let me add just two small points there is an initiative called the 30 30 we to have 30 percent of the of the world protected as as protected territory by the year 2030. it would be a great initiative to include in that initiative a much higher percentage for the amazon and i think this initiative is going well i i’ve seen in many governments that they are supporting the initiative but making a special case for the amazon would be i think extremely important but i i stopped there thank you thank you very much you got a you know our support so just uh if you can move with this recommendation we will we’ll just go after you and the support so now we’re very lucky also to have guillerme leo the co-founder and co-chairman of natura and cole and also a member of the science panel for the amazon strategic committee please guillerme hi luna thank you thank you so much it’s a pleasure to be here at this panel and honor to to follow president santos uh i would start congratulating the the in the plot once again the science panel for the amazon initiative and the fundamental role that this very diverse rich group has played in facing a challenge the size of the amazon and producing a so rich report this event in this type of connection and reflections promoted by the s by the the spa between scientists businessmen civil society indigenous peoples local communities and state representatives are the only and most efficient ways of transforming the amazon a vital region for brazilians like me for our latin american neighbors and assuredly for the whole world as said but it’s always needed to reinforce i speak out here the complex ecosystem gear which absence impedes any possible future for the earth the magnitude of the draft report prepared by more than 200 preeminent scientists from the amazon region with its 33 chapters gives an exact measure of the challenge we face however the answers are just as complex one of the biggest challenges facing amazon is to be so heterogeneous to be always plural the first step is to recognize its diversity and of interdependent realities for we agreeing the course of a development that meets social needs and the purpose of preserving the wealth the value of the the amazon biomass it is to welcome their multiple voices in a movement that needs to be continuous and built up through dialogue and sharing of views given the ignorant complexity of preparing a development proposal it is essential to understand what is happening in amazon an amazon with at least four different stand structures and occupation patterns as described by advertising our dear fellow the conservative amazon covered by a rich and biodiverse reinforced the arc of deforestation the portion marked by loneliness and under attack by economic activities most often predatory they enterprised the uh region which has been already converted and dominated by the production of commun commodities such as agriculture and mining finally the amazon of the cities which includes large urban areas and small village scatter escape in various municipalities those four different patterns of stand structure and occupation are firmly based on deforestation economy on destruction to avoid this faith we urgently need to unite ourselves for an economy of life the draft report of this panel clearly demonstrates that amazon does not allow simplifications the amazon is complex with diverse voices and perspectives and countable conflicts interests and possibilities we are native peoples kilometers riverside dwellers miners farmers urban populations migrants activists religious military politicians and businessmen we are 35 million amazonians who have a determinant part of our future as nations in the rainforest we are here precisely to expand our collective capacity to speak up and listen about the amazon and thus re-establishing the course of development for the region in the light of science as ilona mentioned reinforced the view of president santos and people’s life in the same sense we started a movement in brazil called the concert some amazonia which many of you are part of which dialogues with previous studies and reflections such as the reference works of distinguished researchers such as berta becker beto verissimo and daniele celentano uma conserta sompel amazonia is essentially characterized by plurality it is a network of more than 250 leaders who come together from the needs need the need to institutionalize a plural and democratic debate on the development path of the region dialogue that is not common those days we connect police makers policymakers academics entrepreneurs politicians and local communities for synergy and positive impact solutions we believe that knowledge attentively listening and the creation of the new political spaces such as this one can ultimately lead us to overcome a predatory and colonizing logic the first response as a stakeholder i propose to reflect on the whole of business in this spiral of transformation that we have thought companies tend to reflect the society’s expectation of changes and are major generators of innovation and wealth and in this 21st century global society realized the scale of the climate crisis the massive loss of biodiversity and unacceptable social inequality the relationships between consumer consumers suppliers and investors are and will remain being increasingly dictated by environmental and social governance mechanisms and the markets are already pricing this the need for governance is the second response as a stakeholder i propose for a reflection in this scenario it is important to bring forth as another time as president santos said the effective action of governments in terms of planning inspection and formulation of public policies and this is the first condition for opportunities for sustainable development development to be established finally as a third response as a stakeholder it’s necessary to provide as our friend ricardo brahmova said quality infrastructure to the religion that could help to fight climate crisis reduce the loss of biodiversity and give the decent access to primary education health and security services too the governance and cooperation scientific knowledge and quality infrastructure with meaningful purpose indicate the complex way for the development in the amazon another time thank you you all that involved in the the the report of the sba a fantastic tool to enhance the quality of life of this uh population and the richness of the amazon as a whole thank you so much thank you so much guilherme and thank you for being such a champion for the private sector awareness and i think understanding that an economy of life a green economy in the region is abundant is possible and is the future so thank you for bringing the future to present and for engaging the whole of society in this debate so i wish that all your endeavors in this sense will be just uh bigger and bigger each day so now uh we’re gonna hear from valerie hickey practice manager invite from the environment and natural resources global practice of the world bank please valerie the floor is yours thank you so much alona and good afternoon everybody i apologize that i’m coming to you from my car but unfortunately in these interesting days of working from home when your electricity goes out and your wi-fi goes away and the local cell towers aren’t working you have to get in your car and drive somewhere very quickly to get service but of course that kind of a problem is nothing compared to the covid that is ravaging the countries and the communities across the amazon basin and across latin america and my heart in the heart of everybody at the world bank goes out to everybody and of course it’s not just covet it’s also climate change and these twin emergencies prove more than ever how important it is that science has a very very strong voice in decision making and that’s why i send huge congratulations to the sustainable development solutions network for convening 200 scientists to sit together even in a virtual world and to come up with a new thinking on what has to happen in the amazon this report the 33 chapters really get to the heart of a terrible terrible paradox in the amazon that we don’t spend enough time thinking about and that’s the fact that you have some of the poorest people in the world living side by side with the greatest natural capital riches that the world has i always think of the state of amazonas in brazil it’s the third poorest state in the country of brazil and yet it contains one quarter of the entire amazon basin and it has managed to protect 96 of its basin how can that be and that speaks to the fact that we need a new approach and that’s what this report is beginning to tease us to beginning to help us think through it’s a new approach where we don’t just think about the amazon as a global public war zone where you have con people who want conservation fighting side by side against people who want development and instead we begin to think about the amazon as a place where there is a community first approach where it’s the local and indigenous communities those communities and families on whose shoulders we ask to protect this global asset we get to put their future first and we get to put the future in their hands and that’s the future that integrates conservation and development and this is something that we have seen the world bank has been engaged in working across the amazon for the past 30 years and more and we have seen proof of concept that integrating conservation and development can work you can grow the forest while you create a pathway out of poverty for those communities in the forest and we think this is incredibly incredibly important and it’s the same idea that drives the gf financed amazon sustainable landscapes program that we’re currently managing across the amazon basin it’s the idea of investing directly in micro and small businesses that sustainably use the natural capital riches to create a path to the middle class for those communities while also making sure that we’re investing in protected area management making sure that that amazon is better and the asl the amazon sustainable landscapes program much like what these 33 chapters conclude is that there are two things that matter one is that we need to accelerate the contagion of good practice and good ideas and that good practice and good ideas come from the people in the amazon we don’t have to wait for outsiders to come with answers the answers are homegrown and they’re there and those answers have to drive and have to accelerate progress through collaboration and it’s not just about creating a coalition of the willing people who would like to do something good intentions aren’t enough this is about the collaboration of the working people in the public sector whether it’s at federal or national levels whether it’s at state government local governments small municipalities whether it’s the private sector working together with the public sector we say private sector we mean everybody from the smallest farmer to the largest business how can we get the public and private sector working together and how can we make sure they collaborate with the local indigenous communities who are basically the stewards of this incredible asset who have to be at the table another reason i commend the science panel for the amazon because you have the communities at the table at this report and one of the places we have to collaborate better really is around investment and this is something of course that professor sax raised we need to invest more in the amazon we need to invest to create that pathway out of poverty while growing the forest not diminishing it and we know to be able to do that we have to tap into private finance including private climate finance thinking about getting more international public finance isn’t enough there’s never going to be enough money in the gf there’s never going to be enough money in the gcf so we have to think about tapping private finance and to do that we need to make sure that two things happen the first and guillermo pointed to this is the and of course so did president santos the need for effective government management we need stronger government institutions that are credible stewards of a strong regulatory framework the private sector wants clear rules of the game so that they know what the rules of the game are and they have a partner in government with whom they can work that becomes incredibly important but we also need to better use international public finance from institutions like my own the world bank so that for example we can invest in the kind of quality infrastructure that guillerme talked about the kind of infrastructure that will get goods from the amazon to market will get services and people outside the amazon into the amazon to see the incredible things that are there but do it in a way that’s responsible that’s sustainable and allows the amazon to really embrace a green future and this is incredibly important and this is what we see as we read the 33 chapters is not just that the chapters themselves in the substance of the report speak to this need for thinking about an integrated conservation development future that is built on the dreams of the people who live there not on the demands of outsiders but that it’s not just substance that matters how we come to this conclusion matters and i again commend the science panel for pulling together home-grown scientists and your own experts and communities for looking inside for the answers and no longer looking outside for those good ideas we at the bank whether it’s through our amazon sustainable landscape program whether it’s through all our colleagues working across the amazon we stand ready to disseminate these lessons and the the results of this these wonderful 33 chapters but also to answer the call for action so that the future you as amazon people want is a future we can help you achieve thank you alona thank you so much valerie oh very important point and thank you for highlighting the importance of climate finance because you know we have the solutions we need the right arrangements creative arrangements to just be able to implement them so i will just uh quickly try to show us again the video from gregorio diaz mirabal and uh so let’s let’s see if we’re lucky to hear from him a economica climatica sanitaria alimentaria esta extincion de la biodiversidad respettando et informe apoyando et informe scientific a so a very important message from gregorio so the amazon is a live being and there’s so much to discuss we’re getting to our brief q a session now uh we got a lot of questions and i’m sure there will be many of other events of this kind just discussing the the findings of this report it says as we said 33 chapters so there’ll be a lot to discuss so i apologize in advance for not getting to all your questions there will be more opportunities so i would like just to start with mercedes if you could answer a question that came uh if you agree with the recent research that says that regions of the amazon rainforest are now emitting more co2 than they absorb so will the amazon stop being a carbon sink soon when thank you ilona for for this question this is a quite important one precisely today a paper was published in nature and some of the authors of this paper are also authors in the spa so what they are showing is in the east part of the amazon because of the simultaneous impacts of climate change deforestation and forest degradation the forest is eating more carbon than absorbing but this is so far restricted to this part of the amazon it’s important to stress that the amazon is a large region in the spa considering the amazon from the high andes until the low parts of the forest and we have a gradient a rainfall gradient and a seasonality gradient from the west to the east part of the amazon so in this precisely in this part of the amazon where we concentrate the major impacts of deforestation degradation and anthropogenic fires so we have there are very dangerous mixtures of pressures and drives of changes in in the region so about the limiters we still have some uncertainties but i would say that we have already eight percent of the forest uh is converted and 70 is degraded so this is almost 40 of the forest under pressure so this is an experiment i would say that we should not try to perform so we really need and i was very concerned when president santos said that also the the deforestation rates in colombia are also rising as in brazil so we really need based on on these uh recent results and the information consolidated and for the science panel we need really to stop the first station right now and try to stop also degradation process this is important as mentioned the amazon rainforest is an important tipping element in the global earth systems and thus can really jeopardize all the global initiatives to stop climate change thank you thank you so much mercedes there is also a question here for simone so when we talk about scientists in the indigenous populations the indigenous people are not in the scientific knowledge can you give us some specific policy opportunities for integrating conservations of indigenous languages and cultures with conservation of biodiversity yes hello everyone thank you so much for the question that’s a challenging one but very important one thank you for that um first of all i think uh i wanna add this is a very good because it adds to what gregorio just presented in the video and also president santos spoke before that indigenous knowledge and indigenous languages are together and encoded all the knowledge that is encoded in digital languages need to be valued and need to be shared and understood for a broader understanding for a more holistic understanding of the amazon for a context-based understanding of the amazon and it should be really recognized in equal terms with scientific knowledge because of its long-term place-based character also avoiding detaching or decontextualizing indigenous knowledge and languages from the places where they develop because the the knowledge and the languages are developed our co have been co-evolving with the land co-evolving with nature co-evolving with biodiversity so it’s really important to have in mind that decontextualizing and bringing them to just a scientific interpretation uh it’s it’s not appropriate to really uh value and and understand how this knowledge is formed and transmitted it’s very ethereal genius also among the same community different people may hold different knowledge about nature about biodiversity for example women might have different knowledge in comparison to men and sometimes this knowledge is just taking at something like a thing and it’s not it’s really evolving so i’m just going to give one example of policies that could be developed to integrate biodiversity and language and linguistic diversity in the amazon one example is policies for intercultural education but intercultural education not only for indigenous peoples but by indigenous peoples also very important to highlight that these policies should be developed in collaboration with indigenous peoples and led by indigenous peoples and local communities as well and not for indigenous people so we really need that collaboration and that participation that participatory approach in the development of this policy so intercultural education also for no indigenous peoples so that people can uh understand the amazon from a different perspective as president santos was saying so for non-indigenous peoples territorial management policies sociological monitoring policies even using technological devices now should value the indigenous language should value the the local concepts and the local designations for places for events for processes that happen in the amazon consultation protocols should be developed in the indigenous languages understanding the system from their own perspective and also biodiversity inventories and research that should be done by and with indigenous peoples thank you thank you so much simone we’re almost uh running out of time but i would like to take a few more questions there is one here uh for ricardo which is the public knows notice of frequency bands to be used for 5g technology was recently launched in brazil one of the commitments to be assumed by the winners of the auction is the coverage of federal highways with 4g technology however in damage in the amazon region transport occurs mainly by waterways which were excluded from these commitments so how is the sdsm translating the crucial link between social justice and climate change into action so i think they’re they’re mixing two questions here so i think one is the on the technology and one it’s like a the the commitments into action so maybe ricardo if you could uh answer these questions to us ilana i think this question reflects the lack of institutional coordination to our development in the amazon and what is lacking is the vision about what we want from the amazon until now the answer to this question is the amazon is the place by which our trucks passes to export soybean and to deliver energy to our continent and this is inadmissible this is not correct it is not a vision sustainable of the amazon we have to to have an international coordination institutional and international coordination in order to have internet connection of very high quality in the forest as we have to have decentralized energy in the forest and in the cities we have to elaborate nature-based solutions to fluids etc it’s important to stress that in this moment we are fighting against deforestation eliminate deforestation is not an arrival point it’s a starting point it’s a starting point for a question that all latin american people have to ask what we want from the amazon my answer is the amazon is the main opportunity to our continent to move toward the scientific and technological frontier of contemporary development we will not be in this frontier in microships or in automobile production but we have the vocation the the the possibility the opportunity to be in this frontier in the sustainable use of social biodiversity and this is the way of creating opportunities of jobs and income for fighting against poverty and misery in the amazon thank you thank you so much ricardo now on from marielos uh there is a question that says that the successful elements of the amazon the deforestation plan created by the the brazilian government in 2004 the plan to combat deforestation was the fight against environmental crimes and also human rights violations in the region however these institutional apparatus of the federal government has been destroyed currently so how was the issue of combating illegal practices doubt uh within the context of the report and if the report looked only into degradation in the agriculture point of view or also analyzed illegal mining for instance so marialis if you could just give us your perception yeah thank you for the uh the questions i will start with the most easy one in the sense of um in the report we have indeed dedicated quite some uh um we we actually are providing different options of restoration for different drivers degradation like mining but also for hunting or overfishing for um illegal uh trafficking so the all these different drivers of deforestation or degradation and how we can restore those areas subjected to them other examples are included in the report so if you you will have access to the report i think to the uh to the uh summary chapters i think you need to look into chapters 28 to 30 more is to to get more detailed information of all these different cases i only highlighted a couple of them indeed um i think the the way that um so one of the the key aspects that are actually being is actually being dealt uh in this report really is uh illegal activities that could be illegal activities due for example for land speculation or illegal activities related to the extraction of resources in that timber forest products or hunting for commercial use or any other illegal activity so the report we are highlighting what are the consequences of those activities but also providing some um some um recommendations of how we could deal with that and what it i think in declines i think what we need a really co-management uh getting involved involving our local communities in the uh for example in patrolling or monitoring for example i know there is this exa um there is this initiative in bolivia in which indigenous communities have been trained and have been given tools like cell phones with gps in which they can monitor their forest during the um during the fire season to indicate where fire is occurring and then inform to see to try to to come back combat all these uh fire cases so i think there are a lot of potential in terms of looking uh together for uh for options but i think what is also important is to see how we can coordinate activities among the different amazonian countries among the different states that are part of the amazon of the amazon basin i think that illegality crosses borders we need to act accordingly to that thank you thank you so much marielos two more questions one for president santos and one to guillerme so president santos i’ll start with you so there is a person that says that you’re quite right when you say that politics come about above science uh when it should be the other way around however it seems to be that politics it it is and it will be above everything else so is there a way to change this reality or even maybe to use the logic of politics in favor of the amazon and science uh the big challenge for the world today is to it to give science the place it deserves uh politicians many times [Music] do not value science and take decisions without the proper information the proper evidence because of political reasons politics of course is what we need but good politics good politic


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Presentation of Initial Findings of the Science Panel for the Amazon
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